Limba italiana: diferèntzias tra is versiones

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'''S'Italianu''' (''italiano'' [itaˈljaːno] o ''lingua italiana'' [ˈliŋɡwa itaˈljaːna]) est una limba romanza de sa famiglia europea de is limbas indoeuropeas. S'italianu derivat de su latinu volgare de s'imperu romanu e, in paris a su sardu, est sa limba chi prus s'acostiat a issu. S'italianu est sa limba ufitziale in Italia, In Isvitzera (in ue est sa limba prìntzipale de su Ticino, is baddes Graubünden de Calanca, Mesolcina, Bregaglia e val Poschiavo<ref>{{Tzita web|url=https://www.forbes.com/sites/davekeating/2020/02/06/despite-brexit-english-remains-the-eus-most-spoken-language-by-far/|tìtulu=Keating, Dave. "Despite Brexit, English Remains The EU's Most Spoken Language By Far". |sambenadu=Keating|nùmene=Dave|situ=Forbes. Retrieved |limba=en|atzessu=7 Februaryfreàrgiu 2020.}}</ref>), San Marino e sa tzitade de su Vaticanu. Tenit unu status de limba minoritaria in Istria (Croatia e Islovenia). Formalmente tenit status ufitziale in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) e Gretzia (Isulas Ionicas e de su Dodecanesu), e est cumprèndida in Corsica (custu derivat de su fatu ca su Corsu tenit una relata strinta cun s'italianu) e Savoja. Fiat puru limba ufitziale in partes de su Nord-Africa (Libia) e Africa orientale (Eritrea,Somalia e Etiopia), in ue galu est impreada in diferentes setores. S'italianu est faeddadu puru de meda comunidades emigradas in America e Australia<ref>{{Tzita web|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120210212620/http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ita|tìtulu=Ethnologue report for language code:ita (Italy) – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version|limba=en}}</ref>. S'italianu est puru inclùdidu asuta is limbas s'atu costitutivu de is limbas de minoria in Bosnia e Herzegovina e in Romania, mancari in custos Paisos s'italianu no est né una limba co-ufitziale né una limba amparada che minoria<ref>{{Tzita web|url=Ethnologue report for language code:ita (Italy) – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version|tìtulu="Languages covered by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages" (PDF).}}</ref><ref>{{Tzita web|url=https://www.coe.int/t/dg4/education/minlang/AboutCharter/LanguagesCovered.pdf|tìtulu="Languages covered by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages" (PDF).|limba=en}}</ref>. Meda faeddadores de s'italianu sunt bilingue in italinanu (in s'istandard o in is variedades regionales) e in is limbas regionales<ref>{{Tzita web|url=http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=IT|tìtulu="Italy". Ethnologue. |data=19 Februaryfreàrgiu 1999. Retrieved |limba=en|atzessu=22 Octobersantugaine 2015.}}</ref>.
 
S'italianu est una de is limbas prus difùndidas de s'Europa, essende una de is limbas ufitziales de s'Organizatzione de sa seguresa e de sa cooperatzione in Europa e un ade is limbas de traballu de su Consigiu de Europa. Est sa secunda limba prus faeddada in s'Unione Europea cun 67 miliones de faeddadores (15% de sa populatzione de s'UE), e est faeddada comente secunda limba de 13.4 miliones de tzitadinos de s'UE (3%). Tenende contu de is faeddadores de s'italianu in Paiosos non UE (comnete s'Isvitzera,s' Albania e su Regnu Unidu) e is àteros cuntinentes, su nùmeru totale de faeddadores est prus o mancu de 85 miliones<ref>{{Tzita web|url=http://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/modern-languages/lal/languages%20at%20lal/italian|tìtulu="Italian — University of Leicester". .le.ac.uk. Retrieved 22 October 2015.|limba=en}}</ref>. S'italianu est sa limba ufitziale de sa Santa Sede, chi serbit puru comente lingua franca in sa gerarchia ecclesiastica aici comente est sa limba ufitziale de s'Ordine soberanu de Malta. S'Italianu est connotu che limba de sa musica pro s'impreu suo sa terminologia musicale e in s'opera. S'influentzia sua est difùndida puru in is artes e in su mercadu de is benes de lussu.
 
S'Italianu est istadu adotadu de s'Istadu a pustis de s'unificatzione de s'Italia, essende istadu prima una limba literaria basada a pitzus de sa faeddada toscana de is classes artas de sa sotziedade forentina<ref>{{Tzita web|url="Italian — University of Leicester"www. italian-language-study.le.ac.uk. Retrieved 22 October 2015com/italian-language/modern-italian.htm|tìtulu=[1] ArchivedModern 3 October 2009 at the Wayback MachineItalian|limba=en|urlarchìviu=https://web.archive.org/web/20091003014156/http://www.italian-language-study.com/italian-language/modern-italian.htm}}</ref>. S'isvilupu suo est istadu influentzadu puru de àteras limbas italianas e in misura minore de is limbas germanicas de is invasores a pustis sa rura de s'imperu romanu de otzidente. S'incorporatzione de faeddos cultos de su latinu est un'àtera frma de prestitu lessicale atressu s'influentzia de sa limba iscrita, de sa terminologia iscientifica e de su latinu eclesiasticu. Atessu su mesuevu e su primu pèriodu modernu meda literados italianos fiant literados in latinu purue aici issos ant adotadu meda faeddos in is iscritos issoro e mancari cando faeddaiant puru in italianu. s vocales suas sunt is secundas prus a su costadu de su latinu a pustis de su sardu <ref>Càstia {{Tzita webLimbas|url=httpsen}} [[://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/:Classification_of_Romance_languages|tìtulu=See ''Italica'' 1950: 46]] (cf. [2https://books.google.com/books?id=M0sbAAAAIAAJ&q=%22Demonstrates+a+comparative+statistical+method%22] and [3https://books.google.com/books?id=M0sbAAAAIAAJ&q=%22there+is+a+maximum+of+77+change+points%22]): "Pei, Mario A. "A New Methodology for Romance Classification." Word, v, 2 (Aug. 1949), 135–146. Demonstrates a comparative statistical method for determining the extent of change from the Latin for the free and checked stressed vowels of French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Rumanian, Old Provençal, and Logudorese Sardinian. By assigning 3½ change points per vowel (with 2 points for diphthongization, 1 point for modification in vowel quantity, ½ point for changes due to nasalization, palatalization or umlaut, and −½ point for failure to effect a normal change), there is a maximum of 77 change points for free and checked stressed vowel sounds (11×2×3½=77). According to this system (illustrated by seven charts at the end of the article), the percentage of change is greatest in French (44%) and least in Italian (12%) and Sardinian (8%). Prof. Pei suggests that this statistical method be extended not only to all other phonological but also to all morphological and syntactical, phenomena.".}}</ref><ref>Càstia {{TzitaLimbas|en}} web|url=https[[://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/:Classification_of_Romance_languages|tìtulu=See Koutna ''et al.'' (1990: 294)]]: "In the late forties and in the fifties some new proposals for classification of the Romance languages appeared. A statistical method attempting to evaluate the evidence quantitatively was developed in order to provide not only a classification but at the same time a measure of the divergence among the languages. The earliest attempt was made in 1949 by Mario Pei (1901–1978), who measured the divergence of seven modern Romance languages from Classical Latin, taking as his criterion the evolution of stressed vowels. Pei's results do not show the degree of contemporary divergence among the languages from each other but only the divergence of each one from Classical Latin. The closest language turned out to be Sardinian with 8% of change. Then followed Italian — 12%; Spanish — 20%; Romanian — 23,5%; Provençal — 25%; Portuguese — 31%; French — 44%."}}</ref>.Comente in meda limbas romanzas s'atzentu est peculiare e a s'imbesse de àteras limbas neolatinas s'italianu mantenit sa diferentzia intra vocales curtzas e longas. Belle totu is faeddos e is sillabas in italianu acabbant cun vocales puras, fatore ca portat a impreare is faeddos italiano in sa poesia cun fatzilidade manna. S'italianu tenet unu sistema de vocales cun 7 sonos ('e' e 'o' tenint sonos mesubascios e mesuartos); su latinu clàssicu nde teniat 10, 5 curtzas e 5 longas.
 
== Riferimentos ==